The lower jaw and dentition of the traversodontid Exaeretodon riograndensis Abdala, Barberena & Dornelles, from the Brazilian Triassic (Santa Maria 2 Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone)
Exaeretodon riograndensis Abdala, Barberena, & Dornelles, 2002 is the most abundant traversodontid preserved in the basal Santa Maria 2 Sequence (Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone), southern Brazil and is closely related to Exaeretodon argentinus Cabrera, 1943 from the Ischigualasto Formation, Argentina. Previous anatomical studies of E. riograndensis have focused mainly on cranial material and little is known about the morphology of its lower dentition or postdentary bones. We describe the first fairly complete postdentary series of the mandible of E. riograndensis and provide additional information on its lower dentition. The postdentary bones of E. riograndensis include a complex coronoid, an angular with a delicate reflected lamina and a stout retroarticular process of the articular, contrasting with the morphology reconstructed for Argentinean specimens, which possess a small retroarticular process. Apart from that, the postdentary bones do not differ significantly from those known for E. argentinus, a fact expected due to the great similarity between other skeletal features of these species. Furthermore, the lower postcanines of E. riograndensis have virtually the same structure as those of E. argentinus, with an approximate quadrangular shape in occlusal view. Moreover, the transverse cusp row is placed anteriorly and comprises a lingual and a buccal cusp, and the occlusal basin delimited by the four main cusps is relatively deep. The new material does not add any taxonomically diagnostic features to E. riograndensis. However, the fossils greatly improve our understanding of the anatomy of the Brazilian species.